Category Archives: Assessments

Transition Planning Inventory-3 Overview & Review

The Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) of 1990 instituted a transition mandate for students receiving special education services.  IDEA 2004 expanded on this to include planning across all areas including community participation, independent living, and continuing education. The Transition Planning Inventory, now in its 3rd edition, was designed to address these mandates. As described in the TPI-3 Administration and Resource Guide, the primary purpose of the TPI-3 is “to assess the transition needs, strengths, preferences, and interest of students at the secondary level” (Patton & Clark, 2021, 14*)   The domains covered within the TPI-3 are working, learning, & living. 

Information is gathered from:

Core Rating Forms 

  • Three forms (Student, Home, and School) Each form contains 57 statements related to transition planning.
  • Each form is organized according to 11 planning areas; Career Choice & Planning, Employment Knowledge & Skills, Post Secondary Training/ Education, Functional Communication, Self Determination, Independent Living, Personal Money Management, Community Involvement & Usage, Leisure and Recreation, Health, & Social/Interpersonal Relationships.

Preference &  Interest Forms

  • Intended to gather information about a students preference and interest
  • Two versions available; basic (intended to be used early in the transition process) and advanced (intendended to be administered when a student is close to leaving school).
  • An optional Home Preference and Interest Form is also available.

Information is compiled through:

Profile & Further Assessment Recommendation Form

  • All information is summarized on this form consisting of 6 sections; 1.) general information, 2.) likely setting for postsecondary outcomes, 3.) student’s preference, interests, and strengths, 4.) results of other assessments, 5.) student profile, 6.) further assessment and information.

Summary of Performance Data

  • The purpose of this form is to give users a quick and easy way to compile the information required by IDEA into a Summary of Performance (SOP) document.  

Overall, the TPI-3 provides a comprehensive means to gather key information from all major players in order to create and implement a meaningful transition plan.

Quick Facts

Age Range: 14-21

Administration Time:
Student Rating Form:

  • 15-20 minutes to complete independently
  • 25-30 minutes if administered orally and/or with support.

The Home Core Rating:

  • 15-20 minutes to complete independently
  • 25-30 minutes if administered orally and/or with support.
  • The School Rating Form 10-12 minutes

Student Performance & Interest Form:

  • 10 to 15 minutes to complete independently
  • 20-25 minutes if administered orally and/or with guidance.

Profile & Further Assessment Recommendation Form

  • 10-15 minutes

Publication Year: 2021

James R. Patton
Gary M. Clark

Administration Type: Individual

Scoring: Inventory rated on a scale from 0 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree)

*Patton, J. R., & Clark, G. M. (2021). Transition Planning Inventory Administration and Resource Guide (3rd ed.). Pro-Ed.

The Peabody Developmental Motor Scales Test

The Peabody Developmental Motor Scales Test-Second Edition (PDMS-2) examines both gross motor and fine motor skills. This test is for children from birth through age 5. The evaluation assesses a child’s development, and also provides training and treatment to improve motor skills. The assessment generally lasts about 45-60 minutes, and provides an in-depth analysis. The Second Edition has been in use since 2000 and is a statistically reliable and valid norm-referenced assessment.

pdmsWhen you order the PDMS-2 COMPLETE Kit, you’ll receive an Examiner’s Manual, a Guide to Item Administration, a Picture Book, 25 Profile/Summary Forms, 25 Examiner Record Booklets, the Motor Activities Program Manual and a Peabody Motor Developmental Chart. The PDMS-2 is also offered without the Motor Activities Program Manual (PDMS-2 TEST Kit).

You will also receive the Object Kit and the Shape Cards Kit which both contain sets of test objects to help achieve a standardized administration of the test; the Object Kit includes a black shoelace, six square beads, a wooden pegboard, three wooden pegs, 12 one-inch cubes, a large button strip, a bottle with a cap, a formboard with shapes, a lacing card, a measuring tape, and a roll of masking tape. The Shape Cards Kit includes blackline masters and three shape cards.

The test scores consist of a Gross Motor Quotient, a Fine Motor Quotient, and a Total Quotient. The Gross Motor Quotient is made up of the Reflexes, Stationary, Locomotion, and Object Manipulation subtests. The Fine Motor Quotient includes the Grasping and Visual-Motor Integration subtests. Lastly, the Total Quotient combines both the Gross and Fine Motor subtests.

To reduce scoring and reporting time and errors, the new PDMS-2 Online Scoring and Reporting System has been developed and is purchased separately. It is web-based software that is PC, Mac and iPad compatible. Some of the software Scoring features include:

  • converting PDMS-2 item scores or subtest scores into standard scores, percentile ranks, and age equivalents
  • generating composite quotients
  • comparing PDMS-2 subtest and composite performance to identify significant intra-individual differences

The software Reporting features also include:

  • a printed report of the student’s identifying information and PDMS-2 performance including short-term and long-term treatment goals and objectives
  • score and print reports using as few as one subtest score or only Gross or only Fine Motor scores
  • save or print text or PDF file using two report options:
    • standard clinical report (2 page summary of test scores)
    • detailed clinical report (fully customized 6- to 8- page analysis indicating treatment goals and objectives

Additional features of this web-based software include:

  • pull-down menus to easily navigate among software functions
    fields for storing detailed examiner and testing information
    on-screen subtest and quotient comparisons

A first-time base subscription provides an entire year of unlimited online scoring and report access for up to five users.

Visual and Motor Cohesion: The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test

The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test (more commonly known as the Beery VMI) detects difficulties in connecting visual perception and motor skills. The test is a Visual-Motor Integration Test (VMI) for ages two and up. It takes about 10-15 minutes to complete, and has two supplemental tests that last five minutes each, as needed.Beery VMI

beeryvmi1This VMI test examines how well an individual integrates visual and motor skills by having them look at 24 drawings. (There is a short form of this test that is often used with two to eight-year-olds, which only tests 15 drawings.) The drawings present simple geometric shapes from the most simple to the most complex. The examinee looks at the shape, then copies each drawing into the Test Booklet.

If the full or short form tests indicate a need for further testing, then the two supplemental tests are administered. These two supplemental tests are the VMI Visual Perception Test and the VMI Motor Coordination Test. They follow the same form as the main test, which ensures that the results are easy to compare.

The starter kit for the Beery VMI includes a manual, 10 full form tests, 10 short form tests, 10 Visual Perception supplemental forms, and 10 Motor Coordination supplemental forms.

Various teaching materials aid this test. These tools help improve visual, motor, and visual-motor function for children pre-elementary school. The booklet of Developmental Teaching Activities headlines the teaching materials. This booklet includes over 250 activities to help a child establish an understanding of art, pre-reading and pre-writing, and athletic skills. Each level has activities directed towards gross motor, fine motor, visual perception, and visual-motor development.

Next in the line of teaching activities is called My Book of Shapes. From the title, you can get a sense of its contents. This book contains 100 geometric exercises that children in preschool and kindergarten can use to improve their motor, visual, and motor-visual function. These activities give children a jump-start for recognizing letter and numeral shapes that the child will experience in school.

beeryvmi2The Beery VMI Stepping Stones Parent Checklist provides an easily accessible list of key developmental “stepping stones.” This list helps parents to track a child’s development from pre-kindergarten through early elementary. While many schools provide developmental feedback, this home checklist helps you observe your child’s development outside of a school setting.

For parents and professionals, the Developmental Wall Chart for Visual-Motor Integration is a colorful chart of gross motor, fine motor, and visual-motor stepping stones. This chart marks development from birth to age six. Many parents and professionals find it useful to have this clear chart on hand for easy reference.

The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test is currently in its 6th edition. This edition was standardized based on a national sample of 1,737 children aged 2 to 18, and the adult norms derive from a sample of 1,021 individuals aged 18 to 100. The Manual for this test includes about 600 norms from birth through age 6 to track and understand visual and motor development.

The Beery VMI Test finds any weaknesses in a child’s development, but also effectively assesses adults of all ages. The Teaching Materials improve any underdeveloped areas, both proactively and reactively, to provide successful integration of visual perception and motor skills.